Diabetes Insipidus – A Rare Disorder

Diabetes Insipidus - A Rare Disorder

What is diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder described by extreme thirst, in spite of drinking excessive water, and passing urine in large amounts. Moreover, in many instances, the condition is the consequent of a body’s inability to produce, save or discharge a main hormone; however diabetes insipidus also tends to occur when kidneys turn unable responding to the specific hormone properly. Sometimes, the condition strikes during pregnancy. Its treatment focuses to normalize the output of urine and relieve the thirst.

What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus?

  • Excessive urine excretion.
  • Extreme thirst.
  • Bed wetting.
  • Nocturia.

Children and infants suffering from diabetes insipidus can experience the following:

  • Weight loss.
  • Delayed growth.
  • Cool extremities.
  • Dry skin.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Fever.
  • Inconsolable crying.
  • Unexplained fussiness.
  • Unusual wet diapers.

What causes diabetes insipidus?

Normally, our kidneys are responsible for filtering the blood. A good amount of water gets reabsorbed, while our body excretes a small quantity of concentrated urine. When the kidneys become unable absorbing the urine, the body then excretes large quantity of diluted urine causing diabetes insipidus.

Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, is responsible for controlling the quantity of water that excretes in urine. It is produced in our brain’s part named hypothalamus. The hormone then accumulates and releases from your pituitary gland.

  • If diabetes insipidus is triggered by the deficiency of antidiuretic hormone, or any damage to pituitary gland or hypothalamus, it is called central diabetes insipidus. Damaged can be consequent due to:
  1. Tumor.
  2. Surgery.
  3. Infection.
  4. Head injury.
  5. Genetic problems.
  6. Loss or insufficient supply of blood to pituitary gland.

 

  • Moreover, if diabetes insipidus is caused because of the kidneys inability to respond antidiuretic hormone, the condition is named as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Defect in your kidneys which leads the failure to respond to antidiuretic hormone can be due to:
  1. Kidney disease for example polycystic kidney disease.
  2. Hypercalcemia.
  3. Genetic problems,
  4. Some drugs for example lithium.

What are the possible complications of diabetes insipidus?

Complications linked with diabetes insipidus include:

How is diabetes insipidus diagnosed?

Since the symptoms of the diabetes insipidus may mimic the ones of other conditions, the doctor can suggest some tests. In case he finds out the patient has diabetes insipidus, the doctor will then take further steps to determine the type of condition, as the treatment tends to vary for every type of diabetes insipidus. For the purpose, the doctor can suggest the following tests:

  • Urinalysis.
  • Water deprivation test.
  • MRI.

How is diabetes insipidus treated?

  • For controlling central DI the doctor can suggest vasopressin (DDAVP, desmopressin).
  • Incase nephrogenic DI is triggered due to medications then discontinuing their intake can help restoring the function of kidney. However with the use of certain medications for years, for example lithium, diabetes insipidus can be lasting. By consuming excessive fluids in order to meet the urine output, lithium-induce NDI and hereditary NDI are treated. Few medicines that help lowering the output of urine may also be needed. Moreover, the condition is also treated with diuretics and anti-inflammatory drugs.

By : Natural Health News

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