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Hyponatremia Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is hyponatremia?

The medical condition hyponatremia tend to occurs when your blood contains considerably low sodium level. Sodium, the electrolyte actually helps in regulating the water quantity which is around and in our cells.

In this condition, sodium becomes diluted causing the water levels of your body to raise, consequently, the cells start swelling. Such swelling tends to cause numerous health issues ranging from mild to severe. The treatment of hyponatremia focuses to resolve the causal condition. However, in other hyponatremia cases, medications and intravenous fluids can be needed.

What are the symptoms of hyponatremia?

  • Confusion.
  • Headache.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Fatigue.
  • Irritability.
  • Restlessness.
  • Seizures.
  • Muscle cramps, spasms of weakness.
  • Coma.

What causes hyponatremia?

Normally, sodium tends to play an important role in the functioning of our body. In addition to this, it supports our muscles and nerves work; regulate the fluid balance of our body and helps in sustaining normal blood pressure.

Numerous lifestyle factors and possible conditions can cause hyponatremia such as:

  • Liver, heart and kidney problems: specific diseases that affect your liver or kidney and congestive heart failure can cause the accumulation of fluids in the body, that tend to dilute the body’s sodium, consequently lowering its level.
  • Specific medications: for example pain medications, antidepressants and diuretics can cause an individual perspire or urinate more than normal.
  • Diarrhea or severe vomiting: such causes the body losing electrolytes (sodium) and fluids.
  • Consuming excessive water: since sodium loses through your sweat, consuming excessive water in endurance activities for example triathlons and marathons tend to dilute the blood content sodium.
  • Dehydration: consuming very little fluid too can cause a problem, as if the body become dehydrated, it loses electrolytes and fluids.

Furthermore, amphetamine (recreational drug ecstasy), hormonal changes and SIADH are also few other triggers that can cause serious hyponatremia cases.

What are the risk factors of hyponatremia?

You are more at a higher risk to develop hyponatremia if you:

  • Are an older adult.
  • Consume specific medication that includes pain medications, antidepressants and thiazide diuretics.
  • Perform intensive physical and long distance activities.
  • Suffering from conditions which decrease the water excretion of your body.

How is hyponatremia diagnosed?

Physical examination and medical history of the patient will serve the basis of hyponatremia diagnosis. However, the doctor will suggest urine tests and blood tests in order to verify low blood sodium.

How is hyponatremia treated?

The focus of the treatment of hyponatremia is to deal with its cause in case possible. Chronic, moderate hypotremia caused by drinking excessive water, diuretics or diet can be treated through cutting back the fluids intake temporarily. Furthermore, the doctor can recommend adjusting the use of diuretic in order to raise the sodium levels in the blood.

However in case of acute, severe hyponatremia, the doctor will review some aggressive form of treatment plan for you. Options tend to include:

  • Medications in order to manage your symptoms.
  • Intravenous fluids (IV sodium solution) can help increase the level of sodium in the blood.

By : Natural Health News

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